Updated: I’ve updated this post and page since publishing my most recent book about student choice– Learning By Choice. I’d love for you to add resources you’ve found in the comments section of this post so I can add them to the list!
Since experimenting with “20% Time” in my class a few years ago, I’ve been fascinated by the research and history of this practice in education and the business world. This has led me down a long road to finally writing Inquiry & Innovation in the Classroom (published by Routledge) on inquiry-driven education and choice-based learning experiences.
During that time I’ve had hundreds of conversations with fellow teachers practicing choice-based and inquiry-driven learning in some way shape or form (Genius Hour, Passion Projects, Choose2Matter etc). Lately, through the book-writing process I’ve had some more in-depth interviews about inquiry-based education, and I’ve spent a great deal of time researching the beginnings and reasons behind 20% time’s effectiveness.
Today I want to shed some light on the research behind choice, and more broadly, inquiry-driven education. When folks such as Ewan McIntosh (who I really respect as an educator) stir up the pot with posts like this one, I believe the best way to defend inquiry as a practice is to look at the results. It’s easy for me to praise 20% time because I’ve done it in the classroom, and seen many other teachers do it successfully with their students. However, I also understand that if you have not had that experience it may be difficult to justify. This post is for those that need more resources about inquiry-driven education, and for those trying to get research to back them up when bringing it to a principal, school board, parent committee, or even colleagues.
I’m breaking the post down into four sections. The first section is how choice and inquiry-driven learning increases student engagement and achievement. The second section is success-stories from fellow teachers using the choice and inquiry-driven learning model. The third section is how choice and inquiry-driven learning is connected to the common core standards. The fourth section is related books, whitepaper, and research linked to inquiry-driven education.
- How choice and inquiry-driven learning increases student engagement and achievement
- Success-stories from fellow teachers using the choice and inquiry-driven learning model
- How choice and inquiry-driven learning is connected to the common core standards
- Related books, whitepaper, and research linked to choice and inquiry-driven education
The Connection Between Choice, Inquiry, and Student Engagement/Achievement
“Research shows that such inquiry-based teaching is not so much about seeking the right answer but about developing inquiring minds, and it can yield significant benefits. For example, in the 1995 School Restructuring Study, conducted at the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools by Fred Newmann and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, 2,128 students in twenty-three schools were found to have significantly higher achievement on challenging tasks when they were taught with inquiry-based teaching, showing that involvement leads to understanding. These practices were found to have a more significant impact on student performance than any other variable, including student background and prior achievement.”
“As contrasted with more traditional forms of teaching and learning, inquiry emphasizes the process of learning in order to develop deep understanding in students in addition to the intended acquisition of content knowledge and skills. Inquiry draws upon a constructivist learning theories where understanding is built through the active development of conceptual mental frameworks by the learner. This approach is supported and enhanced by a broad research base which has identified three key implications for effective instructional practices”:
1. Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about the world. This means teaching practices must draw out and work with students preexisting understandings and make student ‘thinking’ visible and central to the learning.
2. Competence in an area of study requires factual knowledge organized around conceptual frameworks to facilitate knowledge retrieval and application. Classroom activities should be designed to develop understanding through in-depth study of curriculum topics.
3. Meta-cognition (thinking about thinking) helps students take control of their learning. Opportunities for students to define learning goals and monitor their own understanding need to be embedded into classroom tasks.”
“The goal of the Everyday Classroom Tools Project is to provide opportunities for students to learn that inquiry and their own experiences can help them achieve a deeper understanding of their world. It aims to foster a spirit of inquiry in all students. These goals promise to help students grow into life-long learners who are curious and set out to seek and achieve deep understanding of the world that they live in.”
“This document has two sections. The first is a series of six brief essays to address the kinds of questions teachers often have about inquiry based learning and learning from one’s experience. The intent is to place the central concepts of The Everyday Classroom Tools Project in context–to provide a sense of the variety of ways that the concepts have been thought about as well as how they are interpreted in this project. These essays are written for a teacher audience. The second section is a set of big ideas, questions, and attitudes that are central to the project. This section is written with the expectation that teachers will communicate these messages to their students.”
“An inquiry-based approach was recommended by the National Science Foundation in their 1996 report of a year-long review of the state of undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology (SME&T) education in the United States entitled Shaping the Future (NSF, 1996). In this report, the researchers stated that it is imperative that: All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry (NSF, 1996, p.6).”
“Over the 4 year research phase (2000-2004), HiWEL has extensively studied the impact of Learning Stations on children. Hole-in-the-Wall Learning Stations were installed in diverse settings, the impact of interventions was monitored and data was continually gathered, analyzed and interpreted. Rigorous assessments were conducted to measure academic achievement, behaviour, personality profile, computer literacy and correlations with socio-economic indicators.”
“How can education professionals modify the way they teach and engage students today in order to prepare those students for tomorrow’s changing work environments? In part one of this three-part series, education experts Will Richardson and Rob Mancabelli explore the realities of the 21st century workplace. It can be said—without a doubt—that the future world of work for today’s students will be vastly different than what we have traditionally prepared these students for. But what implications does this have for today’s classrooms?”
List of other applicable research on Inquiry-Driven Learning:
- Evaluating the Use of Inquiry-Based Activities: Do Student and Teacher Behaviors Really Change? -Cianciolo, Jennifer; Flory, Luke; Atwell, Jonathan – Journal of College Science Teaching, 2006
- Inquiry-Based Instruction: Does School Environmental Context Matter? – Pea, Celestine H. – Science Educator, 2012
- How Technology Resources Can Be Used to Represent Personal Inquiry and Support Students’ Understanding of It across Contexts – Scanlon, E.; Anastopoulou, S.; Kerawalla, L.; Mulholland, P. – Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 2011
Success Stories of Teachers Using Choice and Inquiry-Driven Learning Models
The following is a list of teachers from all levels, principals, professors, and other educators who are currently practicing inquiry-driven education. They write and share their experiences online, and each is a great resource for those getting started.
Angela is an inspiration. Her Choose2Matter Quest and campaign have spread the idea of passion and compassion based learning far across our country (and the world). Stay tuned for a big way that Choose2Matter will be working with the inquiry-driven community this year.
Vicki Davis is one of the people who really got me moving in the right direction with my students when I started the Flat Classroom Project. Since then I’ve worked with Vicki on some different projects and have loved what she’s been doing with her students. Inquiry is a huge part of Vicki’s class and she’s one of the best at describing this learning process.
Oliver’s Compassion-Based Learning site takes inquiry-driven learning one step further: it’s about helping. I love this idea and you can’t help but get excited when you read his post’s on compassion-based learning.
Paul Solarz does amazing inquiry work with elementary students. If you ever thought, “Oh my students are too young for that”, then check out Paul’s site and his writing on inquiry and project-based learning in the classroom. And his new book, Learn Like a Pirate, is another great resource.
Dr. Jackie Gerstein’s work with User-Generated Education is highlighted in this blog. She is consistently drawing on resources and research to support user-generated education, including inquiry-driven learning experiences.
Don Wettrick’s blog is “pure genius” and his work with students surrounding choice and innovation will inspire you to actually implement the strategies he talks/write about.
Chris Lehmann is the founding Principal of the Science Leadership Academy (SLA) in Philadelphia, PA. The Science Leadership Academy is an inquiry-driven, project-based, 1:1 laptop school that is considered to be one of the pioneers of the School 2.0 movement nationally and internationally. Chris also is the recipient of ISTE’s 2013 Outstanding Leader of the Year award. If you want to see a Principal’s perspective on inquiry-based learning, this is the spot!
Kevin Brookhouser is someone I greatly respect as a teacher and speaker on inquiry-driven education. He is one of the original folks I know who began doing 20% projects and his blog is filled with great posts and reflections on his (and his students) experiences.
Troy Cockrum is a teacher and author. He is a great teacher to learn from and has also used flipped-learning in conjunction with 20% time. Last year he participated along with his students in their inquiry-driven project…the results speak for themselves!
Kate has outdone herself with this site. She has put together resources on getting started with inquiry-driven 20% projects, and has linked to many other teachers doing inquiry-driven learning in their classrooms. Check it out for a much fuller list.
I was so pumped to see Nicholas Provenzano (ISTE’s 2013 Teacher-of-the-Year) starting 20% projects in his class. Nick has been a leader in project-based learning and using Evernote in the classroom. If you want to see someone just starting the inquiry-driven experience, follow Nick’s blog this year.
Denise Krebs runs Genius Hour (an inquiry-driven project) in her class, and shares what her (and her students) are doing through this blog. It is a must read for those planning on running an inquiry project with middle school students.
Joy Kirr is a leader online with the #geniushour community and you can always find her giving inspiration to others starting inquiry projects on Twitter (through that hashtag). Joy will tell you that she doesn’t do a full “genius hour” but she does allow her students choice and inquiry which makes all the difference.
Gallit Zvi is another Genius Hour teacher who consistently inspires. She recently started the Genius Hour collaborative website with Hugh McDonald, where many teachers can cross-share and post their inquiry-driven stories. Please check it out!
Hugh McDonald is a teacher I would want my kids to have! His passion for learning and inquiry is shown on his blog, twitter, and instagram feed. Check out what Hugh is doing with his middle school students, and make sure to read the post, “Dear Mr. McDonald, I will never forget Genius Hour”.
This is another collaborative spot where many teachers are sharing their inquiry-driven learning experiences and resources.
Robyn Thiessen has set up an amazing site where teachers can come and share what their students are doing with inquiry-based learning in the classroom. You’ll find stories of learning from all over the globe, in the entire K-12 age spectrum.
This MOOC was an awesome learning experience for me this summer. Each week I was able to connect and collaborate with 150 educators about inquiry-driven learning experiences. Please check out the site and all of the wonderful teachers running 20% time or Genius Hour in their classrooms.
Each of these wonderful educators have run “Innovation Days/Weeks” in their schools. It allows the entire school (or grade levels) to use inquiry as a means for inspiring projects for that day/week. I’ve linked to each of their sites above and you should definitely see what they’ve been doing!
There are many others who have been left off this list, but it is not static! I will update it periodically as I read different blog posts about inquiry-driven learning experiences. For a much longer (and better) list of educators running inquiry projects in their class, check out this Twitter List put together by Joy Kirr (along with her LiveBinder).
Connection to the Common Core Standards
As the Common Core is in its infancy, there have been a number of posts (like this one) that tie the standards to inquiry. However, I wanted to point out the large quantity of standards that already tie to inquiry-based learning in some way/shape/form.
Standards That Connect to Reading/Researching with Inquiry
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
Standards That Connect to Analyzing and Applying with Inquiry
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
Standards That Connect to Writing and Presenting with Inquiry
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Standards That Connect to Creating and Evaluating with Inquiry
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.1
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Standards for Mathematical Practice
- CCSS.Math.Practice.MP3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.
- CCSS.Math.Practice.MP4 Model with mathematics.
- Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.
- P21 Common CoreToolkit: Alighting the CCSS with the Framework for 21st Century Skills
- Inquiry Based Learning and the CCSS
- PBL and the Common Core
Related Research, Books, and Articles
- Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom by William Glasser
- Choice Theory in the Classroom by William Glasser
- Drive by Daniel Pink
- Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
- Finding Your Element and The Element by Sir Ken Robinson
- The 20% Doctrine by Ryan Tate
- World Class Learners by Yong Zhao
- Creating Innovators by Tony WagnerSome Great Books By Teachers and Educators
- The 20time Project by Kevin Brookhouser
- Pure Genius by Don Wettrick
- Learn Like a Pirate by Paul Solarz
- Learning “to Do” and Learning “about” Inquiry at the Same Time: Different Outcomes in Valuing the Importance of Various Intellectual Tasks in Planning, Enacting, and Evaluating an Inquiry Curriculum – Syer, Cassidy A.; Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.; Aulls, Mark W. – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2013
- The Development of Dynamic Inquiry Performances within an Open Inquiry Setting: A Comparison to Guided Inquiry Setting – Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal – Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2009
- Shifting to an Inquiry-Based Experience – Corder, Gregory; Slykhuis, Julie – Science and Children, 2011
- Connecting Mathematics in Primary Science Inquiry Projects – So, Winnie Wing-mui – International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2013
- The Practice of Inquiry: A Pedagogical “Sweet Spot” for Digital Literacy? – Bruce, Bertram C.; Casey, Leo – Computers in the Schools, 2012
- The Parallels between Philosophical Inquiry and Scientific Inquiry: Implications for Science Education – Burgh, Gilbert; Nichols, Kim – Educational Philosophy and Theory, 2012
- Challenges to Inquiry Teaching and Suggestions for How to Meet Them – Quigley, Cassie; Marshall, Jeff C.; Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Cook, Michelle P.; Padilla, Michael – Science Educator, 2011
- Collaborating to Improve Inquiry-Based Teaching in Elementary Science and Mathematics Methods Courses – Magee, Paula A.; Flessner, Ryan – Science Education International, 2012
- Deweyan Inquiry: From Education Theory to Practice – Johnston, James Scott – SUNY Press, 2009
- The Benefits of Using Authentic Inquiry within Biotechnology Education – Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber – Science Education Review, 2010
- Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 4(2), 2011 Action Research in Teacher Education: Classroom Inquiry, Reflection, and Data-Driven Decision Making – By Carrie Eunyoung Hong and Salika A. Lawrence of William Paterson University
- Concept to Classroom Journal Articles Resources
So, hope this helps in justifying the use of choice and inquiry-based education, including 20% time and Genius Hour. Let me know what resources and research I may have missed and I am going to update this site on a monthly basis. I’m sure we can all pull together even more research to do what is best for our students.